Introducing Gradio Clients


Wrapping Layouts


Gradio features blocks to easily layout applications. To use this feature, you need to stack or nest layout components and create a hierarchy with them. This isn't difficult to implement and maintain for small projects, but after the project gets more complex, this component hierarchy becomes difficult to maintain and reuse.

In this guide, we are going to explore how we can wrap the layout classes to create more maintainable and easy-to-read applications without sacrificing flexibility.


We are going to follow the implementation from this Huggingface Space example:


The wrapping utility has two important classes. The first one is the LayoutBase class and the other one is the Application class.

We are going to look at the render and attach_event functions of them for brevity. You can look at the full implementation from the example code.

So let's start with the LayoutBase class.

LayoutBase Class

  1. Render Function

    Let's look at the render function in the LayoutBase class:

# other LayoutBase implementations

def render(self) -> None:
    with self.main_layout:
        for renderable in self.renderables:


This is a little confusing at first but if you consider the default implementation you can understand it easily. Let's look at an example:

In the default implementation, this is what we're doing:

with Row():
    left_textbox = Textbox(value="left_textbox")
    right_textbox = Textbox(value="right_textbox")

Now, pay attention to the Textbox variables. These variables' render parameter is true by default. So as we use the with syntax and create these variables, they are calling the render function under the with syntax.

We know the render function is called in the constructor with the implementation from the gradio.blocks.Block class:

class Block:
    # constructor parameters are omitted for brevity
    def __init__(self, ...):
        # other assign functions 

        if render:

So our implementation looks like this:

# self.main_layout -> Row()
with self.main_layout:

What this means is by calling the components' render functions under the with syntax, we are actually simulating the default implementation.

So now let's consider two nested withs to see how the outer one works. For this, let's expand our example with the Tab component:

with Tab():
    with Row():
        first_textbox = Textbox(value="first_textbox")
        second_textbox = Textbox(value="second_textbox")

Pay attention to the Row and Tab components this time. We have created the Textbox variables above and added them to Row with the with syntax. Now we need to add the Row component to the Tab component. You can see that the Row component is created with default parameters, so its render parameter is true, that's why the render function is going to be executed under the Tab component's with syntax.

To mimic this implementation, we need to call the render function of the main_layout variable after the with syntax of the main_layout variable.

So the implementation looks like this:

with tab_main_layout:
    with row_main_layout:



The default implementation and our implementation are the same, but we are using the render function ourselves. So it requires a little work.

Now, let's take a look at the attach_event function.

  1. Attach Event Function

    The function is left as not implemented because it is specific to the class, so each class has to implement its attach_event function.

    # other LayoutBase implementations

    def attach_event(self, block_dict: Dict[str, Block]) -> None:
        raise NotImplementedError

Check out the block_dict variable in the Application class's attach_event function.

Application Class

  1. Render Function
    # other Application implementations

    def _render(self):
            for child in self.children:

From the explanation of the LayoutBase class's render function, we can understand the child.render part.

So let's look at the bottom part, why are we calling the app variable's render function? It's important to call this function because if we look at the implementation in the gradio.blocks.Blocks class, we can see that it is adding the components and event functions into the root component. To put it another way, it is creating and structuring the gradio application.

  1. Attach Event Function

    Let's see how we can attach events to components:

    # other Application implementations

    def _attach_event(self):
        block_dict: Dict[str, Block] = {}

        for child in self.children:

            for child in self.children:
                except NotImplementedError:
                    print(f"{}'s attach_event is not implemented")

You can see why the global_children_list is used in the LayoutBase class from the example code. With this, all the components in the application are gathered into one dictionary, so the component can access all the components with their names.

The with syntax is used here again to attach events to components. If we look at the __exit__ function in the gradio.blocks.Blocks class, we can see that it is calling the attach_load_events function which is used for setting event triggers to components. So we have to use the with syntax to trigger the __exit__ function.

Of course, we can call attach_load_events without using the with syntax, but the function needs a Context.root_block, and it is set in the __enter__ function. So we used the with syntax here rather than calling the function ourselves.


In this guide, we saw

  • How we can wrap the layouts
  • How components are rendered
  • How we can structure our application with wrapped layout classes

Because the classes used in this guide are used for demonstration purposes, they may still not be totally optimized or modular. But that would make the guide much longer!

I hope this guide helps you gain another view of the layout classes and gives you an idea about how you can use them for your needs. See the full implementation of our example here.